Research shows that object-location binding errors can occur in VWM indicating a failure to store bound representations rather than mere forgetting (Bays et al., 2009; Pertzov et. al. 2012). Here we investigated how categorical similarity between real-world objects influences the probability of object-location binding errors. Our observers memorized three objects (image set: Konkle et. al. 2010) presented for 3 seconds and located around an invisible circumference. After a 1-second delay they had to (1) locate one of those objects on the circumference according to its original position (localization task), or (2) recognize an old object when paired with a new object (recognition task). On each trial, three encoded objects could be drawn from a same category or different categories, providing two levels of categorical similarity. For the localization task, we used the mixture model (Zhang & Luck, 2008) with swap (Bays et al., 2009) to estimate the probabilities of correct and swapped object-location conjunctions, as well as the precision of localization, and guess rate (locations are forgotten). We found that categorical similarity had no effect on localization precision and guess rate. However, the observers made more swaps when the encoded objects have been drawn from the same category. Importantly, there were no correlations between the probabilities of these binding errors and probabilities of false recognition in the recognition task, which suggests that the binding errors cannot be explained solely by poor memory for objects. Rather, remembering objects and binding them to locations appear to be partially distinct processes. We suggest that categorical similarity impairs an ability to store objects attached to their locations in VWM.
Binocular rivalry is a phenomenon of visual competition in which perception alternates between two monocular images. When two eye’s images only differ in luminance, observers may perceive shininess, a form of rivalry called binocular luster. Does dichoptic information guide attention in visual search? Wolfe and Franzel (1988) reported that rivalry could guide attention only weakly but that luster (shininess) “popped out”, producing very shallow reaction time (RT) × set size functions. In the present study, we have revisited the topic with new and improved stimuli. By using a checkerboard pattern in rivalry experiments, we found that search for rivalry can be more efficient (16msec/item) than standard, rivalrous grating (30 msec/item). The checkerboard may reduce distracting orientation signals that masked the salience of rivalry between simple orthogonal gratings. Lustrous stimuli did not pop-out when potential contrast and luminance artifacts were reduced. However, search efficiency was substantially improved when luster was added to the search target. Both rivalry and luster tasks can produce search asymmetries, as is characteristic of guiding features in search. These results suggest that interocular differences that produce rivalry or luster can guide attention but these effects are relatively weak and can be hidden by other features like luminance and orientation in visual search tasks.
The study was designed to examine possibly new aspects of creative activity related to virtual environments. Online gaming interface Minecraft was used to construct (on computer screens) complex structures such as buildings from ready-made blocks. Two modes were used: individual and dyadic. Participants (N=49, 29 males and 20 females, 18 to 29 y.o., recruited on a snow-ball basis) were required to build distantly two complex structures: a ship and a house; each structure was required to be highly creative, i.e. unusual and never seen before. Creativity was estimated not by the final structure but by the number of ideas generated by the participants and produced either in practice or verbally. Each participant participated once in an individual and once in a dyadic session, the partners were selected randomly. The participants' verbal exchanges were performed via Skype; digital operations with the Minecraft interface were recorded using the FastStone Capture software package. All the ideas produced by participants were classified in accordance with the following criteria: type (conceptual, functional, selective, corrective, and intentional), level of the structure which the produced ideas referred to (the whole structure, a particular component of the structure, or an element of the structure), and the status of verbally produced ideas (implemented or unimplemented). The results show that participants produced significantly more ideas and consumed significantly less time to build the prescribed structure (a house or a ship) within the individual session compared with the dyadic session. Analysis of the implementation of ideas shows that, within the dyadic sessions, participants produced significantly less ideas which were subsequently implemented. For the most part they intensely dropped out and left unimplemented the ideas referring to the levels of either components or elements of the structure. Results also show that intentions were the only type of ideas which, being generated equally often in the individual and dyadic sessions, were more often left unimplemented in the group sessions, compared to the individual sessions.
Top-down processing is a mechanism in which memory, context and expectation are used to perceive stimuli. For this study we investigated how emotion content, induced by music mood, influences perception of happy and sad emoticons. Using single pulse TMS we stimulated right occipital face area (rOFA), primary visual cortex (V1) and vertex while subjects performed a face-detection task and listened to happy and sad music. At baseline, incongruent audio-visual pairings decreased performance, demonstrating dependence of emotion while perceiving ambiguous faces. However, performance of face identification decreased during rOFA stimulation regardless of emotional content. No effects were found between Cz and V1 stimulation. These results suggest that while rOFA is important for processing faces regardless of emotion, V1 stimulation had no effect. Our findings suggest that early visual cortex activity may not integrate emotional auditory information with visual information during emotion top-down modulation of faces.
The present paper aims at showing the necessity to distinguish two aspects of emotion recognition ability, accuracy of the recognition of emotion types that constitute the emotional state of the observed person and sensitivity to the intensity of the observed person’s emotions. A new technique that measures these two aspects of emotion recognition, the Videotest of Emotion Recognition, is proposed. The accuracy and sensitivity indices provided by the Videotest of Emotion Recognition have high reliability and yield different correlation patterns with other cognitive and personality variables.
The heterogeneity of our visual environment typically reduces the speed with which a singleton target can be found. Visual search theories explain this via nontarget similarities and dissimilarities that affect grouping, perceptual noise, etc. Here, we show that increasing the heterogeneity of a display can facilitate rather than inhibit visual search for size and orientation singletons when heterogeneous features smoothly fill the transition between highly distinguishable nontargets. We suggest that this smooth transition reduce the “segmentability” of dissimilar items to otherwise separate subsets making the visual system to treat them as a near-homogenous sets opposing to a singleton.
Observers are good at rapid estimation of the average size of multiple objects (Ariely, 2001; Chong & Treisman, 2003). We tested whether the average is calculated along a "raw" (proximal) stimulus size (where only visual angle is important) or relies on the distal size of an object (which requires taking distance information into account). Our participants performed the size averaging task adjusting the size of a probe circle. Using a stereoscope, we changed the apparent distance of ensemble members from the observer. In Experiment 1, all ensemble members shifted by the same disparity angle in both eyes, so that they seemed at different distances but always in one plane. The probe was always in a same plane (zero disparity). We found that presenting ensembles in apparently remote planes made observers to overestimate their mean size in comparison to what is expected from simple visual angle averaging. In Experiment 2, ensemble members were presented at different planes so that (1) visual angle reduced with the apparent distance, making apparent sizes of individual members more similar, (2) visual angle increased with the apparent distance, increasing this apparent dissimilarity, and (3) all members were presented at the zero disparity plane. We found that the mean error in probe averaging in condition (1) was significantly smaller than in other conditions. This finding is in line with previous studies also showing that similarity between ensemble members in one plane reduce the error. As the items in condition (1) could look more similar than in the others only due to the distance cues, we conclude that observers took into these cues into account. Our main theoretical conclusion is that the visual system appears to work with bound objects rather than their separate features when representing their global properties such as the average size.
Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2016
This paper reports on a study that examined the extent to which idea exchange within an electronic brainstorming session produces stimulation of individual creativity. The influence of ideas exchange on particular parameters of creativity was assessed in an idea-exposure paradigm. The design of the study involved the manipulation of the characteristics of stimuli: common, rare, and absurd ideas were presented to participants. The sample consisted of 144 undergraduate students. To measure creativity, I used the Russian version of Guilford’s “Unusual Uses” Verbal Test of Creative Thinking. Three parameters of creativity were analyzed: fluency, flexibility, and originality. Performed analyses revealed a significant effect of stimulus type on originality. Results also showed that the rare type of stimulus ideas produced positive influence on originality.
The study examines the effects of singularity (rare, common) and organization (discrete, concurrent) of stimulating material on divergent thinking. Divergent thinking was assessed by the Unusual Uses test, in which participants had to generate as many uses as possible for a wooden ruler. Participants were primed with either rare or common ideas which were presented either in three sets or simultaneously in one set. We found a significant effect of singularity on originality. Participants primed with rare stimuli significantly outperformed their counterparts primed with common stimuli on originality. We also found a significant effect of organization on fluency. Participants primed with discrete stimulus set significantly outperformed their counterparts primed with concurrent stimulus set on fluency. Finally, we found marginally significant interactive effect of singularity and organization on fluency and originality. Participants who were primed with rare stimuli in discrete sets tended to obtain higher fluency and originality scores than participants in other groups.
Observers are able to extract summary statistical properties, such as numerosity or the average, from spatially overlapping subsets of visuals objects. However, this ability is limited to about two subsets at a time, which may be primarily caused by the limited capacity of parallel representation of those subsets. In our study, we addressed several issues regarding subset representation. In four experiments, we presented observers with arrays of dots of one to six colors and instructed them to judge the number of colors. We measured both speed and accuracy of those judgments. Following standard criteria used for the interpretation of object enumeration data, we recognized two modes of subset representation: a) parallel, effortless and strategy-independent representation of no more than two subsets, and b) serial representation modulated by different attentional strategies and a working memory template. We also found an advantage of large sets over small ones, demonstrating that subset representation can be formed based on some statistical accumulation of information from individual objects.
Previous works show that mood congruence effect or trait congruence effect can be achieved (Chepenik et al., 2007; Rusting, 1998). The present study explores the effect of emotional state and dispositional joy on effectiveness of emotion recognition from facial expression. The experimental study was conducted in two groups of subjects. The general sample consisted of 39 participants. Participants’ emotional state was measured with the self-report questionnaire PANAS. The participants’ current mood was manipulated with the emotion induction procedure, which involved screening video with “joyful” or “neutral” emotional coloring. To measure the speed of emotional information processing a computer technique was used, in which a participant performed the task on emotion recognition from facial expression. The hypothesis was tested whether there is an effect of congruency in positive information processing. It was supposed that positive emotional state and dispositional joy heighten the speed of positive information processing and don’t influence processing of the stimuli with negative emotional coloring. Testing of the emotion induction procedure proved it to be partially successful. Congruency effect for dispositional joy was achieved: we found an interrelation of higher manifestation of this trait with higher speed in joy recognition from facial expressions. The influence of positive emotional state was manifested in lower speed in recognition of joy. In sum, the results show that the congruency effect is expressed differently for trait and emotional state. Overall, the results of the conducted study provide information on the mechanisms of emotion recognition.
The aim of this study was to analyze the scope and limitations of top-down influences upon visual information processing (during visual search for letters and words in random letter arrays). Previously we have demonstrated that the presence of words in large letter arrays does not affect the efficiency of visual search for a target letter in these arrays. The current study shows that spontaneous word extraction during visual search for target letters and controlled word extraction during visual search for words are mediated by different perceptual strategies. Spontaneous word detection is not accompanied by specific eye movements, whereas the words search task produces an increase of the number of eye fixations over all the letter array, both within and between words. In an additional study we demonstrate that categorical set does not affect the efficiency of visual search for words in random letter arrays: it seems that observers first extract words from letter arrays and then categorize detected words. Thus, there appears to exist two distinct mechanisms providing for the detection of words in letter arrays. The first mechanism is based on the processing of separate letters, whereas the second one is based on the processing of words as perceptual chunks.
Solving a complex problem during interaction with a novel complex system (a virtual factory) is considered from view of dynamics of knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. Performance of successful and non-successful participants is compared based on objective indicators (e.g., profit gained, actions on acquisition of information about the system and actions to control the system, eye movements, etc.) and subjective indicators (participants’ evaluation of various aspects of the problem and performance). Eye tracking has been conducted in the context of classification of participants’ work with: (a) information panels of the factory, and (b) panels with controls. It was postulated that: (a) looking at the information panels is related to knowledge acquisition, and (b) looking at the panels with controls and practical actions on the controls are related to knowledge application. It has been shown that in the initial stages of complex problem solving successful participants set cognitive aims linked to the understanding of the system rather than practical aims (i.e., gaining profit). Non-successful participants set practical aims rather than cognitive ones. When novel variables were introduced into the system successful participants started prioritizing cognitive aims compared to practical aims whereas non-successful participants weakened both cognitive and practical aims. In conclusion, a hypothesis is put forward that success or failure in the management of novel systems can be linked to the type and intensity of cognitive and practical goals which participants set by themselves.
The aim of this paper is to equip the modern techniques of teamwork with heuristic methodsto organize group sessions of complex problem solving. It seems important because of in teamwork we should organize teams and problem solving process. There are a lot of methods and techniques for teamwork, but they are not designed for complex problem solving. We offer the cycle model of problem solving by R. Sternberg as the methodological basis of the teamwork at complex problem solving (CPS). We considering the possibility of constructing the procedure for CPS based on the classification of heuristic methods. The paper recommends specific heuristic methods for team CPS for each stage of the movement in the problem space. The novelty of the work lies in the fact that the proposed scheme simplifies the design of teamwork CPS sessions. And it creates opportunities for a more organized solution of complex problems in the group set of heuristic techniques.
This article reviews the research in visual working memory (VWM) over the past 20 years. We describe research methodologies in the field and focus on commonly used paradigms such as change detection and continuous report (including the use of mixed models for analysis) that aim to measure the capacity and precision of VWM. We also consider the organization of units of storage in VWM; in particular, we describe feature binding and representing multiple objects as ensemble summary statistics. We review theories that try to explain the nature of VWM limitations: structural theories (slot-based), resource theories, hybrid theories (slot and resource theories), and a recently suggested hierarchical encoding theory. Theories aiming to explain forgetting mechanisms in VWM are reviewed. We also discuss the neural correlates of VWM encoding and storage, as well as neurophysiological models of VWM that are substantially influenced by the mentioned theories.
The article discusses the problems of person-organization fit. On the one hand, there is a process of theoretical understanding of the construct “person-organization fit” through the relationship with relatives within the meaning of constructs “person-job fit”, “person-group fit”, “person-environment fit”, and even a “congruence of the individual values and organization”. On the other hand, the question remains about the validity of the measurement tools of fundamental and applied research in this area. As a possible way out of this situation, the opportunities of using binomial regression are offered.