В статье рассматриваются вопросы прогнозирования индивидуально-психологических характеристик человека (личностных черт, эмоциональных состояний, ценностей, мотивов и др.) на основании его цифровых следов. Как показали исследования, такие характеристики можно весьма точно выявлять на основании самых разных видов цифровых следов (текстов, изображений, «лайков» (мне нравится) и др.). Наибольшая точность прогноза достигается в случае личностных черт. Эмоциональные состояния, ценности, мотивы и удовлетворенность жизнью прогнозируются несколько хуже. Одновременное использование нескольких видов цифровых следов, а также более совершенных процедур сбора и анализа данных позволяет существенно повысить точность прогноза. Оцениваются ближайшие и более отдаленные перспективы исследований в данной области.
One of the important sources of failures in visual working memory (VWM) is that individual items can interfere with each other. Here, we tested how two causes of such interference—poor categorical distinctiveness and imperfect feature binding—interact. In three experiments, we showed low and high distinctive objects and tested VWM for objects alone, for locations alone and for object-location conjunctions. We found that low object distinctiveness impairs object recognition and increases the number of object-location binding errors. Also, we dissociated the probabilities that these binding errors are due to recognition impairment or a failure of correct binding. Results show that poor distinctiveness increases binding errors rate only due to lacking recognition but not to binding impairment. Together, our findings suggest that object distinction and object-location binding act upon different components of VWM and are separate sources of interference. This study was funded by RSCF #18-18-00334.
The question of whether visual working memory (VWM) stores individual features or bound objects as basic units is actively debated. Evidence exists for both feature-based and object-based storages, as well as hierarchically organized representations maintaining both types of information at different levels. One argument for feature-based storage is that features belonging to different dimensions (e.g., color and orientations) can be stored without interference suggesting independent capacities for every dimension. Here, we studied whether the lack of cross-dimensional interference reflects genuinely independent feature storages or mediated by common objects. In three experiments, participants remembered and recalled the colors and orientations of sets of objects. We independently manipulated set sizes within each feature dimension (making colors and orientations either identical or differing across objects). Critically, we assigned to-be-remembered colors and orientations either to same spatially integrated or to different spatially separated objects. We found that the precision and recall probability within each dimension was not affected by set size manipulations in a different dimension when the features belonged to integrated objects. However, manipulations with color set sizes did affect orientation memory when the features were separated. We conclude therefore that different feature dimensions can be encoded and stored independently but the advantage of the independent storages are mediated at the object-based level. This conclusion is consistent with the idea of hierarchically organized VWM.
Functional fixedness is related to excessive focusing on a specific functional property of an object. We assumed that the naming of other objects which possess the same functional property to a lesser extent than a given object can reduce the excessive focusing on this functional property for this object. It can help to loosen functional fixedness and improve individual creative performance. We tested the effectiveness of this method with 302 participants aged between 17 and 22 (256 female and 46 male). The study consisted of two experiments with 110 and 192 participants, respectively. Prior to performing a creative activity (story writing in Experiment 1 and thinking up unusual uses of a given object in Experiment 2), participants from different groups were asked to name objects which possess the main functional property of the given object to the same extent, to a lesser extent, and to a greater extent, respectively. In both phases of the study, we found a significant effect on the extent of the target property possession on originality. Results showed that participants named objects with the lesser manifestation of a target property outperformed their counterparts from other groups.
Numerous studies report that observers are good at evaluating various ensemble statistics, such as mean or range. Recent studies have shown that, in the perception of mean size, the visual system relies on size information individually rescaled to distance for each item (Utochkin & Tiurina, 2018). Here, we directly tested this rescaling mechanism on the perception of variance. In our experiment, participants were stereoscopically shown a sample set of circles with different sizes and in different apparent depths. Then they had to adjust a test set so that the range of sizes to match the range of the sample. We manipulated the correlation between sizes and depth for both samples and tests. In positive size-depth correlation, bigger circles were presented farther and had to seem larger and small circles were presented closer and had to seem smaller; therefore, the apparent range had to increase. In negative size-depth correlation, the apparent range had to decrease, since bigger circles had to become smaller, and vice versa. We tested all possible couplings of correlation conditions between samples and tests. We found that in general, observers tended to overestimate the range of the sample (over-adjusted it on the test). Yet, the strongest underestimation was shown when the sample had a negative correlation and the test had a positive correlation. This pattern is consistent with the prediction following from the idea of rescaling. As the negative correlation reduced an apparent range, participants had to under-adjust the range of a positively correlated test to compensate for the difference in variance impressions. We conclude, therefore, that multiple sizes are automatically rescaled in accordance with their distances and this rescaling can be used to judge ensemble variance.
The adaptation aftereffect (AAE) of mean size suggests that mean size is coded as a basic visual property. Also, size-distance rescaling of individual objects occurs prior to averaging. Because it is unclear whether the AAE is based on rescaled mean size, we tested the degree of AAE as a function the apparent mean size of stimuli presented at different depths. Observers were stereoscopically shown an adapting patch of dots with either a large or small mean size, followed by a brief test circle. Adaptors and tests were presented at a near and a far plane, both in the same or in different planes. Observers then adjusted the size of a probe in the middle plane to match the test size. We found evidence of the AAE and for test size rescaling, but no effect of whether the adaptor and test were presented in the same or in different planes. Our results suggest that the AAE of mean size take places at a lower level of visual processing than size-distance rescaling. This study was funded by RFBR #18-313-00253.